EKOS Therapy
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EKOS Therapy
Clinical Overview
Bibliography
Case Library
Vascular Surgery / Venous Thromboembolism Portal / Learning Center / Bibliography

 

EKOS Bibliography

 

 

Explore the latest publications presenting outcomes of different treatment options for pulmonary embolism, including Acoustic Pulse Thrombolysis.

 

Pulmonary Embolism

 
Amankwah KS, Seymour K, Costanza MJ, Gahtan V. Ultrasound Accelerated Catheter Directed Thrombolysis for Pulmonary Embolus and Right Heart Thrombus Secondary to Transvenous Pacing Wires. Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 2011; 45(3):299-302.
Bagla S, Smirniotopoulos JB, van Breda A, Sheridan MJ, Sterling, KM. Ultrasound-Accelerated Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Acute Submassive Pulmonary Embolism. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 2015; 26(7):1001-1006.
Banovac, F., Buckley, D.C., et al. Reporting Standards for Endovascular Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 2010; 21:44-53.
Baris VO, Ozcinar E, Ozcan OU, Sirlak M. Ultrasound-assisted, catheter-directed thrombolysis of acute pulmonary embolism via the subclavian vein: an alternative access path. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2016; 44(7): 590-592.
Bloomer, TL, Thomassee EJ, Fong PP. Acute Pulmonary Embolism Network and Multidisciplinary Response Team Approach to Treatment. Critical Pathways in Cardiology 2015; 14(3): 90-96.
Chamsuddin A, Nazzal L, Kang B, Best I, Peters G, Panah S, Martin L, Lewis C, Zeinati C, Ho H, Venbrux A. Catheter-directed Thrombolysis with the Endowave™ System in the Treatment of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism: A retrospective Multicenter Case Series. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 2008; 19(3):372-376.
Cincin A, Bozbay M, Oguz M, Sahin A, Tanidir Y, Mutlu B. Successful treatment of massive pulmonary embolism with catheter-directed thrombolysis in a patient with lymphocele: a rare cause of thromboembolism. American Journal of Therapeutics 2016 Sep-Oct; 23(5): e1257-e1262.
Dumantepe M, Uyar I, Teymen B, Ugur O, Enc Y. Improvements in Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Right Ventricular Function After Ultrasound-Accelerated Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for the Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism. Journal of Cardiac Surgery 2014;29:455–463.
Engelberger RP, Kucher N. Ultrasound-assisted Thrombolysis for Acute Pulmonary Embolism: A Systematic Review. European Heart Journal, 2014; 35(12):758-64.
Engelberger RP, Kucher N. Catheter-Based Reperfusion Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism. Circulation, 2011; 124:2139-2144.
Engelberger RP, Moschovitis A, Fahrni J, Willenberg T, Baumann F, Diehm N, Do D-D, Baumgartner I, Kucher N. Fixed low-dose ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis for intermediate and high-risk pulmonary embolism. European Heart Journal 2015; 36:597- 604.
Engelhardt TC. Ultrasonic-Enhanced Thrombolysis for PE. Vascular Disease Management, Vol. 8, No. 3, March 2011, pE62-E64.
Engelhardt TC, Taylor AJ, Simprini LA, Kucher N. Catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis for the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Thrombosis Research, 2011:128:149-152.
Fuller TJ, Paprzycki CM, Zubair MH, Hussain LR, Kuhn BA, Recht MH, Muck PE. Initial experiences with endovascular management of submassive pulmonary embolism – is it safe? Annals of Vascular Surgery 2016; Sep 22. Pii: S0890-5096(16)30815-9. Doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2016.09.002 [epub ahead of print].
Jain SKA, Patel B, David W, Jazrawi A, Alexander P. Unloading of Right Ventricle and Clinical Improvement after Ultrasound-accelerated Thrombolysis in Patients with Submassive Pulmonary Embolism. Case Reports in Medicine 2014, Epub ahead of print.
Kaymaz C, Ozturk S, Akbal O, Tanboga IH, Yilmaz F, Poci N, Turkday S, Hakgor A, Yildiz C, Aktemur T, Ozdemir N, Konstantinides S. Ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis in high-risk and intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism: results from a single-center cohort. Angiology 2016. E-pub ahead of print.
Kennedy RJ, Kenney HH, Dunfee BL. Thrombus resolution and hemodynamic recovery using ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis in acute pulmonary embolism. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 2013; 24:841–848.
Kucher N, Boekstegers P, Müller OJ, Kupatt C, Beyer-Westendorf J, Heitzer T, Tebbe U, Horstkotte J, Müller R, Blessing E, Greif M, Lange P, Hoffmann R-T, Werth S, Barmeyer A, Härtel D, Grünwald H, Empen K, Baumgartner I. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Ultrasound- Assisted Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Acute Intermediate-risk Pulmonary Embolism. Circulation. 2014;129:479-486.
Kuo, W.T., Gould, M.K., et al. Catheter-directed Therapy for the Treatment of Massive Pulmonary Embolism: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Modern Techniques. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 2009; 20(11):1431-1440.
Lee KA, Cha A, Kumar MH, Rezayat C, Sales CM. Catheter-directed, ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis is a safe and effective treatment for pulmonary embolism, even in high-risk patients. Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders 2017 (March); 5(2): 165-170.
Lin, P., Annambhotla, S., et al. Comparison of Percutaneous Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis versus Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis in Patients with Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism. Vascular, 2009; 17 (Suppl 3):S137-147.
Lin PH, Chen H, Bechara CF, Kougias P. Endovascular Interventions for Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Perspectives in Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy 2010; 22(3):171-182.
McCabe JM, Huang PH, Riedl L, Eisenhauer AC, Sobieszczyk P. Usefulness and Safety of Ultrasound-Assisted Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Submassive Pulmonary Emboli. Am J Cardiol 2015; 115(6): 821-824.
Monteleone PP, Rosenfield K, Rosovsky RP. Multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism response teams and systems. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy 2016; 6(6):662-667.
Nykamp M, VandenHull A, Remund T, Santos A, Kelly P, Schultz G, Laurich C. Safety and Efficacy of Ultrasound-accelerated Catheter-directed Lytic Therapy in Acute Pulmonary Embolism with and without Hemodynamic Instability. Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders 2015; 3(3):251-7.
Ozcinar E, Cakici M, Yaman ND, Baran C, Aliyev A, Inan B, Durdu S, Akar AR, Sirlak M. Thrombus resolution and right ventricular functional recovery using ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis in acute massive and submassive pulmonary embolism. International Angiology 2017 (Feb 15); DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.17.03775-0. E-pub ahead of print.
Ozmen C, Deniz A, Akilli RE, Deveci OS, Cagliyan CE, Aktas H, Celik AI, Akpinar AA, Disel NR, Balli HT, Hanta I, Demir M, Usal A, Kanadasi M. Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis May Be an Effective and Safe Treatment Modality for Intermediate Risk/Submassive Pulmonary Embolism. Int Heart J 2016; 57:91-95.
Patel N, Patel NJ, Agnihotri K, Panaich SS, Thakkar B, Patel A, Savani C, Alfonso C, Cohen M, Tafur A, Elder M, Mohamed T, Attaran R, Schreiber T, Grines C, Badheka AO. Utilization of Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis in Pulmonary Embolism and Outcome Difference Between Systemic Thrombolysis and Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 2015; 86(7): 1219-27.
Piazza G, Hohlfelder B, Jaff MR, Ouriel K, Engelhardt TC, Sterling KM, Jones NJ, Gurley JC, Bhatheja R, Kennedy RJ, Goswami N, Natarajan K, Rundback J, Sadiq IR, Liu SK, Bhalla N, Raja ML, Weinstock BS, Cynamon J, Elmasri FF, Garcia MJ, Kumar M, Ayerdi J, Soukas P, Kuo W, Liu PY, Goldhaber SZ. A Prospective, Single-Arm, Multicenter Trial of Ultrasound- Facilitated, Catheter-Directed, Low-Dose Fibrinolysis for Acute Massive and Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: the SEATTLE II study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Interventions 2015; 8: 1382-92.
Porres-Aguilar M, Burgos JD, Munoz OC, Soto-Cora E, Mukherjee D. Successful pharmacomechanical intervention with ultrasonic-accelerated thrombolytic catheter for massive pulmonary embolism. Indian Heart J 2013; 65: 699-702.
Quintana D, Salsamendi J, Fourzali R, Narayanan G. Ultrasound-assisted Thrombolysis in Submassive and Massive Pulmonary Embolism. Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology 2014; 37(2):420-6.
Sag S, Nas OF, Kaderli AA, Ozdemir B, Baran I, Erdogan C, Gullulu S, Hakyemez B, Aydinlar A. Catheter-directed ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis may be life-saving in patients with massive pulmonary embolism after failed systemic thrombolysis. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2016 Oct; 42(3):322-8.
Shah KJ, Scileppi RM, Franz RW. Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism using Ultrasound- Accelerated Thrombolysis Directly into Pulmonary Arteries. Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 2011; August; 45(6) 541-8.
Sharma V, Goldberg HD, Zubkus D, Shears LL, Kaczorowski DJ. Successful Management of Cardiac Arrest Due to Pulmonary Embolus Using Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Ultrasound-Accelerated Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis. Ann Thorac Surg 2016; 101(4): e107-9.
Silvetti S, Pappalardo F, Melisurgo G, Nisi T, Latib A, Figini F, Colombo A. Membrane Oxygenation in a Patient With Massive Pulmonary Embolism and Cardiac Arrest. Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions 2013; 6(3):e34-e36.
Stambo, G., Montague, B. Bilateral EKOS™ EndoWave™ Catheter Thrombolysis of Acute Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism in a Hemodynamically Unstable Patient. Southern Medical Journal 2010. 103(5): 455-457. Also American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2010; 28(8): 983.e5-983.e7.

 

Venous & Arterial Occlusions

 
Abdel-aal AK, Ezzeldin IB, Hamed MF, Ibrahim RM, Berry M, Underwood E, Saddekni S. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Portal Vein Thrombosis Using Ultrasound-accelerated Catheter-directed Thrombolysis. Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2014; 48: 460-465.
Agarwal A, Khan MS, Aduli F, Li R, Culp WC. Mesenteric vein thrombosis treated successfully with ultrasound augmented thrombolysis. Acta Gastroenterologica Belgica, 2012; 75(1):55-7.
Alkhouli M, Shafi I, Bashir, R. Inferior Vena Cava Filter Thrombosis and Suprarenal Caval Stenosis: a Double Whammy. JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions 2015; 8(2): e23-5.
Arko FR, Arko MZ, Murphy EH. Endovascular Intervention for Lower-Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis. Vascular Disease Management, Vol. 8, No. 3, March 2011, pE71-E79.
Crouch S, Hill D, Bridwell D. New Technology for the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial and Venous Occlusions: Ultrasound Accelerated Thrombolysis. Journal of Radiology Nursing 2008; 27(1):14-21.
DOĞANCI S, EROL G, KAYA E, KADAN M, DEMİRKILIÇ U. İliofemoral Derin Ven Trombozunda Ultrasonik Kateter ile Trombolitik Tedavi Deneyimi: Olgu Sunumu. Damar Cer Derg 2012;21(2):192-6.
[Translated article: Ultrasonic Catheter Directed Thrombolysis Experience in the Treatment of Iliofemoral Deep Venous Thrombosis: Case Report]
Doomernik DE, Schrijver AM, Zeebregts CJ, de Vries J-PPM, Reijnen MMPJ. Advancements in Catheter-directed Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis. Journal of Endovascular Therapy, 2011; 18(3):418-434.
Dumantepe M, Tarhan IA, Yurdakul I, Ozler A. Endovascular Treatment of Postpartum Deep Venous Thrombosis: Report of Three Cases. Vascular 2013; in press.
Dumantepe M, Tarhan IA, Ozler A. Successful Treatment of Central Venous Catheter Induced Superior Vena Cava Syndrome With Ultrasound Accelerated Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, 2013; 81(7):E269-73.
Dumantepe M, Tarhan IA, Ozler A. Treatment of chronic deep vein thrombosis using ultrasound accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2013 Sept; 46(3):366-71.
Dumantepe M, Tarhan A, Yurdakul I, Ozler A. US-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, 2013; May-Jun; 19(3):251-8.
Dumantepe M, Tarhan IA, Yurdakul I, Ozler A. Ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis for the management of postpartum deep venous thrombosis. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 2013; May;39(5):1065-9.
Engelberger RE, Fahmi J, Willenberg T, Baumann, Spirk D, Diehm N, Do D-D, Baumgartner I, Kucher N. Fixed Low-dose Ultrasound-assisted Catheter-directed Thrombolysis Followed by Routine Stenting of Residual Stenosis for Acute Ilio-femoral Deep-vein Thrombosis. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2014; 111(6):1153-60.
Engelberger RP, Kucher, N. Management of Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Upper Extremity. Circulation 2012; 126:768-773.
Grommes J, Strijkers R, Greiner A, Mahnken AH, Wittens CHA. Safety and Feasibility of Ultrasound-accelerated Catheter-directed Thrombolysis in Deep Vein Thrombosis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 2011; 41:526-532.
Karthikesalingam A, Young EL, Hinchliffe RJ, Loftus IM, Thompson MM, Holt PJE. A Systematic Review of Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy in the Treatment of Deep Venous Thrombosis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 2011; 41:554-565.
Khan IR, Reeves JG, Riesenman PJ, Kasirajan K. Simultaneous Arterial and Venous Ultrasound- Assisted Thrombolysis for Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens. Annals of Vascular Surgery, 2011; 25:696.e7-696.e10.
Konings R, Lely RJ, Nurmohamed SA, Hoksbergen AWJ. Successful Reversal of Acute Kidney Failure by Ultrasound-accelerated Thrombolysis of an Occluded Renal Artery. Case Reports in Medicine 2014, Epub Sep 8.
Latchana N, Dowell JD, Al Taani J, Michaels A, Elkhammas E, Black SM. Ultrasound- Accelerated, Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis After an Orthotopic Liver Transplant. Experimental and Clinical Transplantation 2015, Feb;13(1): 96-9.
Lin PH, Ochoa LN, Duffy P. Catheter-Directed Thrombectomy and Thrombolysis for Symptomatic Lower-Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: Review of Current Interventional Treatment Strategies. Perspectives in Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy 2010; 22(3):152-163.
Lu T, Loh TM, El-Sayed HF, Davies MG. Single-center retrospective review of ultrasoundaccelerated versus traditional catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. Vascular April 2017 (Epub ahead of print).
Marchigiano G, Riendeau D, Morse CJ. Thrombolysis of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 2006; 29:312-323.
Marmagkiolis K, Lendel V, Cilingiroglu M. EKOS™ Ultrasound-accelerated Catheter-directed Thrombolysis for Acutely Occluded Femoro-popliteal graft. Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine, 2014; 15:43-45.
Motarjeme A. Ultrasound-Enhanced Thrombolysis. Journal of Endovascular Therapy 2007; 14(2):251-256.
Ozcinar E, Yaman ND, Cakici M, Baran C, Inan MB, Durdu S, Akar AR, Sirlak M. Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy of deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremity. International Angiology 2016 (Sep 7); e-pub ahead of print.
Parikh S, Motarjeme A, McNamara T, Raabe R, Hagspiel K, Benenati J, Sterling K, Comerota A. Ultrasound-accelerated Thrombolysis for the Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis: Initial Clinical Experience. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 2008; 19(4) 521-528.
Raabe R. Ultrasound-accelerated Thrombolysis in Arterial and Venous Peripheral Occlusions: Fibrinogen Level Effects. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, August 2010; 21:1165-1172
Reslan OM, Raffetto JD, Addis M, Sundick S. Congenital Absence of Inferior Vena Cava in a Young Patient with Iliofemoral Deep Venous Thrombosis Treated with Ultrasound-accelerated Catheter-directed Thrombolysis: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Annals of Vascular Surgery 2015; 29(8): 1657. e9-15.
Schrijver AM, van Leersum M, Fioole B, Reijnen MMPJ, Hoksbergen AWJ, Vahl AC, de Vries JPPM. Dutch Randomized Trial Comparing Standard Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis Versus Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis for Arterial Thromboembolic Infrainguinal Disease (DUET). Journal of Endovascular Therapy 2015; 22(1):87-95.
Schrijver AM, Vos JA, Hoksbergen AWJ, Fioole B, Fritschy WM, Hulsebos RG, de Jong SC, Reijnen MPPJ, de Vries JPPM. Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis for Lower Extremity Ischemia: Multicenter Experience and Literature Review. Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, 2011; 52(4):467-476.
Schrijver AM, Reijnen MMPJ, van Oostayen JA, Hoksbergen AWJ, Lely RJ, van Leersum M, de Vries JPPM. Initial Results of Catheter-Directed Ultrasound-Accelerated Thrombolysis for Thromboembolic Obstructions of the Aortofemoral Arteries: A Feasibility Study. Cardiovascular and interventional Radiology, 2012; 35(2): 279-285.
Sheridan, R.L., Case 41-2009: A 16 Year-Old Boy with Hypothermia and Frostbite, New England Journal of Medicine, December 31, 2009; 2654-62.
Sloot S, Nierop JV, Kootstra JJ, Wittens C, Fritschy WM. Bilateral Catheter-directed Thrombolysis in a Patient with Deep Venous Thrombosis Caused By a Hypoplastic Inferior Vena Cava. Phlebology 2014, Epub ahead of print.
Strijkers, RHW, Grommes J, Arnoldussen CWKP, de Graaf R, ten Cate AJ, Wittens CHA. Ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis in acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis. Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders 2013; 1(3): 225- 30.
Strijkers RHW, de Wolf MAF, Arnoldussen CWKP, Timbergen MJM, deGraaf R, Ten Cate-Hoek AJ, Wittens CHA. Venous In-stent Thrombosis Treated by Ultrasound Accelerated Catheter Directed Thrombolysis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2015; 49(4): 440-7.
Vedantham, S., Millward, SF., Cardella, JF, Hofmann, LV, Razavi, MK, Grassi, CJ, Sacks, D, Kinney, TB. Society of Interventional Radiology Position Statement: Treatment of Acute Iliofemoral Deep Vein thrombosis with Use of Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Intrathrombus Thrombolysis, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, July 2009, Vol. 20, No. 7S. S332-S335.
Wissgott C, Richter A, Kamusella P, Steinkamp H. Treatment of Critical Limb Ischemia Using Ultrasound-Enhanced Thrombolysis (PARES TRIAL): Final Results. Journal of Endovascular Therapy, 2007; 14(4):438-443.
Zaghlool DS, Franz RW, Jenkins J. EkoSonic™ thrombolysis as a therapeutic adjunct in venous occlusive disease. International Journal of Angiology 2016 (Dec); 25(4):203-209.
Zagory JA, Perkowski PE, Guidry LC, Schellack JV. Novel approach to percutaneous thrombolysis in large caliber clotted vascular access using ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis. J Vasc Access 2015; 16(5): 403-406.

 

Graft thrombosis

 
Daniels L, Hoksbergen AWJ, Coveliers HME, Lely RJ, Nederhoed JH, Wisselink W. Catheterdelivered Transducer-tipped Ultrasound Thrombolysis of a Chronically Occluded Aortic Stentgraft Limb. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Extra 2010; 19, e25- e27.
Stambo, GW, Gabriel, Y. “Endovascular treatment of a chronically occluded limb of endograft with combination TNK pharmacological and EKOS™ thrombolytic catheter system”. Radiography, 2011; 17(1): 81-83.

 

Safety of EKOS™ Technology

EKOS™ ultrasound is safe in vivo

 
Raabe R. Ultrasound-accelerated Thrombolysis in Arterial and Venous Peripheral Occlusions: Fibrinogen Level Effects, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, August 2010; 21:1165-1172
Soltani A, Singhal R, Jorge L. Garcia, Narayan R. Raju. Absence of Biological damage from prolonged exposure to intravascular ultrasound: A swine model. Ultrasonics, 2007; 46:60-7.
Soltani A. The safety of using low intensity ultrasound to enhance thrombolysis. Official Proceedings of ISTU 2005, 233-238.
Prokop AF, Soltani A, Roy RA. Cavitational Mechanisms in Ultrasound-Accelerated Fibrinolysis. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 2007; 33:924-33.
Prokop AF, Soltani A, Roy RA. Mechanisms Responsible for Ultrasound-accelerated Fibrinolysis in the Presence and Absence of OptisonTM. IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium 2006, 1D-3.

 

Drugs are unaffected by EKOS™ ultrasound field

 
Soltani A, Soliday C. Effect of ultrasound on enzymatic activity of selected plasminogen activators. Thrombosis Research, 2007; 119: 223-228.
Soltani A. The safety of high frequency, low intensity ultrasound to enhance thrombolysis. Official Proceedings of ISTU 2005, 233-238.
Soltani A, Prokop AF, Vaezy S. Stability of Alteplase in presence of cavitation. Ultrasonics 2008, 48; 109-116.

 

Science of Ultrasound Drug Delivery

Drug penetration into a clot is enhanced by ultrasound

 
Atar S, Luo H, Nagai T, Sahm R, Fishbein M, Siegel R. Arterial Thrombus Dissolution In Vivo by Use of a Transducer-Tipped, High Frequency Ultrasound Catheter and Local Low-Dose Urokinase Delivery, Journal of Endovascular Therapy, 2001; 8:282-290.
Atar S. The Use of Transducer-Tipped Ultrasound Catheter for Recanalization of Thrombotic Arterial Occlusions. Echocardiography 2001, April; 18(3):233-37.
Francis C, Blinc A, Lee S, Cox C. Ultrasound Accelerates Transport of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Into Clots. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 1995; 21(3):419-424.
Owens, CA. Ultrasound-Enhanced Thrombolysis: EKOS™ EndoWave™ Infusion Catheter System. Seminars in Interventional Radiology 2008; 25:37-41.
Siddiqi F, Blinc A, Braaten J, Francis C. Ultrasound Increases Flow Through Fibrin Gels. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 1995; 73:495-498.

 

EKOS™ proprietary waveforms are more effective at drug delivery

 
Soltani A, Volz KR, Hansmann DR. Effect of modulated ultrasound parameters on ultrasoundinduced thrombolysis. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 2008; 53:6837-47.
Soltani A, Volz KR, Hansmann DR. Effect of constant versus variable ultrasound operating parameters on ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 2008; 26(suppl 1):1-18.

 

 

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